Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Factors Affecting Cross Culture Communication Cultural Studies Essay

Components Affecting Cross Culture Communication Cultural Studies Essay Holliday, Kullman and Hyde (2004) affirm that the term 'culture alludes to examples of human action and the representative structures that give such a movement some hugeness. It incorporates innovation, workmanship, science, just as good frameworks and the trademark practices and propensities for the general public. Distinctive human social orders have various societies, and the individual culture of one individual can be unique in relation to another. Intercultural is the way of thinking of trades between social gatherings inside a general public. Intercultural correspondence is about how individuals from various nations and various societies interface with every others; and how they carry on, impart and see their general surroundings. What's more, compelling intercultural correspondence includes understanding the two ones own etymological and social character and that of the individuals with whom one is imparting. In that, social character has a significant job. Coming up next is a conversation about how issues of personality influence correspondence between individuals from various dialects and societies. Nationality character can extraordinarily influence the viability of correspondence. Distinctive nationality implies diverse in societies and much of the time dialects. Individuals from various nations will in general have various methods of understanding their general surroundings. It influences the manner in which individuals think and carry on in various circumstances. Individuals who have various nationalities are probably going to have various approaches to trade data and perform different exercises that are special to their nations (Lyerly 1997). This may prompt misconception when individuals from various nations attempting to speak with every others. Local contrasts make considerably progressively social holes between human. Along these lines its impact on correspondence is even critical than that of nationality. The distinctions in geology, condition and culture are frequently too enormous that individuals will in general experience the ill effects of extreme social stuns whe n they venture out starting with one area then onto the next. What's more, that is the fundamental power that influences the proficient correspondence between individuals from various countries and additionally district. Ethnicity character is another significant power that may add to the adequacy of correspondence. Due to the diverse of the capacity to comprehend and pick up data of individuals, there are holes in how unique individual comprehends a similar snippet of data. Also, that made the two gatherings of individuals: those who are well off and the poor. Concerning that, it is imperative to consider the issue of ethnicity so as to improve the viability of correspondence between these two gatherings of individuals. Holley (2008) expressed that ethnic gatherings are recognized by regular culture, language, religion, and additionally tribal birthplaces. He additionally contended that there are no universally settled upon ethnic classifications since history frequently assumes a job in what angles are viewed as generally significant for ethnic personality. That is, history is typically the central point that characterizes ethnic personality. Language is seemingly the most significant component of correspondence. Language is mean, in which the substance of the correspondence is moved and gotten. Or then again as Samovar, Porter McDaniel (2008) put it: Language is the medium through which a culture communicates its reality see. Language is likewise considered as a specialized device that should be learned and utilized adequately so as to accomplish effective intercultural correspondence. Furthermore, in the event that language is a device, at that point culture might be considered as the condition that has all the consequences for language. Therefore, culture is, by and large, what characterizes the significance of language. That is the reason, in certain circumstances, a similar word can bring various implications because of the distinctions of societies. The issue is far more detestable when two societies talk in various dialects. For this situation, an interpretation apparatus is required, anyway the capability of misco nception is likewise raised as a word deciphered between two distinct dialects between two unique societies may bring about very surprising importance. For that, language and culture must be keenly considered in intercultural correspondence. Or then again as Sarbaugh (1988) finished up the most significant component in compelling intercultural correspondence concerns language. Network is the beginning stage of character. Each people group has its one of a kind customs, qualities, and standards. Networks give an abundance of composed and profound established data, which works from endless associations of different socio-political, financial, and socio-social properties that happen after some time (Kriesberg 2003). This comprehension turns into the property of that specific network and assumes a significant job in forming the personality structures of its individuals. The rise of different networks, for example, expert, scholastic, and virtual has given the chance to people to procure various information by accepting participation in these networks. The communication of different sub-characters of a person through his/her participation in various networks persistently shapes the picking up, thinking, and perceptual condition, which frames the idea of encounters, esteem inclinations, and information courses of action. This many-sided and complex arrangement o f socialization shapes the character of an individual. The job of networks in molding the characters of its individuals relies upon the idea of the information that is sorted out in its socio-social conventions. Examination of a people network affiliations can empower the analysts to grasp the job that network explicit information plays in shaping the character. Subsequently investigation of network participations of an individual can assist us with understanding the personality elements of an individual; moreover assessment of network information can reveal more insight into social association process. As per Kriesberg (2003) network information, singular information, and character are the three builds that need significant consideration so as to widen and develop our comprehension of the connection between an individual and the network. Social class has been one of the key components that legitimately influence correspondence since the beginning of time. Social class is to some expand as yet making limits between human, in this way making hindrances in compelling correspondence (Holliday, Kullman Hyde 2004). The contentions between the rich and poor people, the executives and common laborers were regularly made by those misconception in correspondence. Individuals in various social class used to be fundamentally influenced so much that they normally make an obstruction to forestall correspondence with other social class. It is maybe from multiple points of view had similar properties with religion contrasts. Religion character is here and there improving correspondence where it shares a comparable intrigue. It is additionally the primary driver of contention when its advantage isn't fulfilled by those of various religion. Since forever, individuals consistently continue attempting to settle these huge contrasts; be that as it may, the contentions with the center causes despite everything stay unmanageable for some social orders until even at this point. This issue may possibly be settled in the event that we can change the center of how human see and comprehend the world. In current society, people get the opportunity to cooperate more routinely and more by and by than previously. As conventional male-ruled social orders reduce, a powerful correspondence rises where ladies and men have similar objectives and equivalent opportunities to seek after and document their objectives (Pinto 2000). While the correspondence among people profits by this decency, there are as yet numerous data and sign of conduct need to consider, and it is significant not to let sexual class character issues hold up with powerful correspondence. Many exploration have been dedicated to the possibility that ladies and men impart contrastingly truth be told, it is now and then expressed that ladies and men convey so uniquely in contrast to each other that they more likely than not saw the world from supreme alternate points of view (Pinto 2000). The correspondence among people is by all accounts steady and equivalent step by step. For instance, the two people can be certain, friend ly, task-centered, or nostalgic. The significant point to consider, then again, is that people here and there recognize similar messages to have various faculties. Age is obviously one of the most significant issues that influences intercultural correspondence. Its job is to some degree like sexual orientation. Individuals will in general think diversely when they are getting more established. The additional time they spend living, the more encounters they have and the more clear they see through clashes. This is even obvious with regards to multi-societies. The youthful ages consistently have various thoughts and the capacity to face challenges. The more established ages see things all the more attentively and are progressively careful when confronting new issues. That is the reason, as I would like to think, even originate from entirely unexpected societies, the old people groups perspectives is, to an extraordinary expand, comparative. Nonetheless, it is required the adaptability of the youthful to adapt to social contrasts. To summarize it, the harmony between the old and youthful are should be offset so as to accomplish a successful interc ultural correspondence. Characters can incredibly influence the correspondence between individuals from various dialects and societies. How individuals consider what their identity is and who and what others are significantly impacts the viability of their correspondence. Their feeling of personality and originations of one another add to their comprehension of their general surroundings. Regardless of whether and how characters influences the correspondence relies upon their specific characteristics. There are various wellsprings of character which lead to one of a kind understandings of the individuals and how they think and act in their reality. Hence the correspondence between individuals is frequently endured by these distinctions of comprehension.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

NaOH Standardization and Titration of an Unknown Organic Acid Essay Example for Free

NaOH Standardization and Titration of an Unknown Organic Acid Essay NaOH Standardization and Titration of an Unknown Organic Acid Overview: Methods for including the quantity of particles in an example is a significant accentuation of research facility work. In this analysis we will utilize the strategy for titration to check the quantity of corrosive particles in an answer. Estimating mass is a moderately simple strategy to do in the lab (albeit a parity is costly). Tallying the quantity of particles requires more exertion. Sub-atomic checking should be possible by setting an obscure measure of a substance equivalent to a known measure of substance. In the titration we will act in lab this week, you will add OH particles to arrangement until they are equal to the quantity of H+ particles in arrangement. Where this mole equivalency happens is known as the equality point. A marker in the arrangement will change shading to flag that the comparability has been reached (really, the pointer reacts to the smallest overabundance of OH particles). The shading change in a titration is known as the endpoint. At the comparability purpose of the titration, the moles of OH (base) are equal to the moles of H+ (corrosive) in the example. The moles of OH added to the arrangement from a buret are determined from the convergence of the base (MOH) and the volume of base (VOH) included, as: V (L) n (mol) Lmol MOH OH The lab objective is to decide the molar mass of an obscure monoprotic corrosive. The grams of corrosive are resolved from gauging the corrosive and the moles are resolved from the titration with NaOH. Since it is a monoprotic corrosive, the moles of corrosive are equivalent to the moles of OH at the endpoint of the titration. n (mol) n (mol) OH corrosive Standardization of NaOH: Last week in lab you arranged a NaOH arrangement with a surmised convergence of 0.1 M. The primary assignment is to decide the specific convergence of that arrangement by titrating the NaOH against a known measure of corrosive. The known measure of co rrosive you will utilize originates from dissolving the strong corrosive potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP, FW = 204.2212 g/mol) in 25 mL of H2O. KHP is an enormous natural particle, however can be seen basically as a monoprotic corrosive. The titration of the KHP with NaOH can be express by the concoction response: OH (aq) + KHP(aq) H2O + KP (aq) To normalize (decide the convergence of) your NaOH arrangement Lmol you will gauge volume of NaOH required to arrive at the titration endpoint. At the identicalness point the moles of NaOH are comparable to the moles of KHP titrated. n (mol) n (mol) NaOH KHP .Before you titrate a KHP test, start with a training titration of 25 mL of a 0.1 M HCl arrangement with your NaOH. Aâ practice titration is a decent method to start any titration. It tells you the estimated convergence of your NaOH arrangement and the conduct of the pointer at the endpoint. Set up a buret with your NaOH arrangement. Review how you clean the buret first with DI water and afterward flush the buret with around 10 mL of your NaOH arrangement. Channel the flush NaOH into a huge waste measuring utencil at your lab seat. At last, fill your buret with NaOH,. Make certain to fill the tip of the buret before you use it and ensure there are no air pockets in the tip. With your graduated chamber measure roughly 25 mL of 0.1M HCl. Record the specific volume you use. Add the HCl to an erlenmyer carafe and include three drops of phenolphthalein marker. Titrate the corrosive arrangement with the NaOH. Spot the erlenmyer cup under the buret on a white piece of paper (or towel). Make sure to make an underlying volume perusing before you start. You should require almost a similar volume of base as you have corrosive for this titration, on the grounds that the molarities of each are comparative. You can titrate rapidly from the start, however as you get close to the endpoint moderate your titrating. Modest quantities of titrant can be included by rapidly pivoting the buret stopcock one insurgency as you approach the end point. Significan tly littler amounts of a solitary drop can be included as you approach the end point. Recall this is just practice. Wear t invest a ton of energy in this progression. After you have arrived at the endpoint, the lightest pink shading that will continue for 20 seconds, demonstrate this answer for your TA. Anything past light pink shows an answer with overabundance OH and you will be over including the moles of corrosive in arrangement. After this training titration, top off your buret, dump your titrated arrangement down the channel, and wash your dish sets with DI water. Normalization of NaOH with KHP: Prepare an answer with a known number of moles of corrosive, by weighing precisely, roughly 0.5 grams of the strong corrosive KHP in a gauge vessel. (Try not to add KHP to the gauge pontoon while on the parity!) Add the gauged corrosive to a huge erlenmyer cup. On the off chance that any of the KHP stays on the gauge vessel utilize your spurt jug to flush the entirety of the KHP into the erlenmyer flagon. Break down the corrosive in roughly 30 mL of water the specific sum doesn't make a difference. Include four drops of phenolphthalein pointer. Titrate the KHP corrosive arrangement with the NaOH. Spot the erlenmyer flagon under the buret on a white piece of paper (or towel). Make sure to make an underlying volume perusing before you start. If not the entirety of the KHP is broken down, you can at present start the titration. Simply ensure that all the KHP is broken up before you arrive at the titration endpoint. The primary titration is consistently the most troublesome in light of the fact that you don't have the foggiest idea how cautiously you have to include the titrant. For this situation, you ought to have the option to include 15 mL of NaOH without passing the endpoint. As you are including your underlying measures of NaOH,notice the pink shade of the pointer directly as the NaOH enters the arrangement. As the pink shading continues, slow the titration down. Try not to release the buret underneath 50 mL during the titration. In the event that you draw near to 50 mL, stop the titration, record the volume of the buret and afterward top off the buret and keep on titrating. The end purpose of the titration happens when the arrangement is the lightest pink shading that will endure for 20 seconds. Almost certainly, you will overshoot the endpoint on your first attempt. Wear t let this concern you. Record the last volume on the buret. At the proportionality point, you have included the specific number of moles of OH as there were moles of corrosive at first. The moles of corrosive (monoprotic) you can decide from the mass of the corrosive and its molar mass (KHP = 204.2212 g/mol). Before you proceed, ascertain the surmised convergence of your NaOH arrangement. Play out a second titration of KHP with NaOH. Gauge and break up another 0.5 g test of KHP and disintegrate it in a clean erlenmyer flagon. The cup can be wet inside. For what reason can the Erlenmyer carafe be wet when test is included, yet the buret must be painstakingly flushed with the arrangement that will in the end be administered? Top off your buret with NaOH and titrate the new KHP test to its pink endpoint. Remember to make an intial buret perusing, include marker and not go past 50 mL on the buret. After the titration, ascertain the focus (molarity) of your NaOH arrangement. Titrate a third KHP test with the expectation of acquiring a third estimation of your NaOH arrangement focus. In the wake of tititrating the third example, ascertain the NaOH fixation and look at all three computations of the NaOH focuses. In the event that the three estimations of the fixation are the equivalent to inside 0.02 M, you may infer that the centralization of your NaOH is the normal of these three estimations. In the event that you have achieved this accuracy in your normalization of NaOH, proceed to the titration on an obscure corrosive. On the off chance that any of the deliberate NaOH focuses are more than 0.02 M, you ought to play out a fourth normalization titration, utilizing another 0.5 g test of KHP. In the wake of inspecting the four centralization of NaOH, decide whether any one focus is suspect as either excessively enormous or excessively little. Youâ can do this by assessment. Notwithstanding, there are factual tests (Student T-tests) that will figure if an information point is an exception. In the event that we ever group show this course with Math140 we will utilize the understudy T-test now. Until further notice, in the event that three fixations are inside 0.02 M, at that point normal these three focuses as the NaOH focus. In the event that you despite everything wear t include three estimations inside 0.02 M of one another, play out a fifth normalization with another example of KHP. Acquire the NaOH fixation from the fifth titration and normal every one of the five estimations to get a normal NaOH concentration.Titration of an Unknown Acid to Determine Molar Mass: The units of molar mass are g/mol. This concentrated property is the proportion of two broad properties, as is appeared in the figure underneath. To decide the molar mass of your obscure corrosive, you will play out the titration of the obscure corrosive similarly you played out the titration of KHP. Get from your TA an obscure corrosive example vial. Compose your obscure number in your scratch pad. This example vial contains two examples of your obscure corrosive. Gauge the vial and every one of its substance. Add half of the corrosive to a clean erlenmyer cup. Recheck the example vial to decide how much corrosive you will titrate in Trial # 1. Note: There are just two examples of your obscure accessible. Exercise alert while titrating. Treating the obscure corrosive similarly as the KHP test, titrate to the endpoint and compute the moles of NaOH require to arrive at the endpoint. From the mass and mole estimations of the obscure corrosive, decide the molar mass of the obscure corrosive. Clean your china and rehash the titrtation on the second example of obscure corrosive. To report the molar mass of the corrosive, take a normal of the two molar mass estimations. Report the vulnerability as half of the distinction between the two mass estimations (ex. in the event that Trial # 1 gives a mass of 240 g/mol and Tiral # 2 gives 256 g/mol the normal ought to be accounted for as 248 8 g/mol). Before you leave the lab, clean your buret with refined water at that point place it topsy turvy in the buret cinch with the stopcock open

Tuesday, August 11, 2020

Im still here.

I’m still here. Whew. Its been awhile. Umso what Ive come to realize is that IAP is supposed to be this easy, carefree ooh Im going to take one three-credit class that meets twice a week for an hour and spend the rest of my time sleeping. But then I had to be like nah, Im going to take a class that meets for 9 hours a day 4 days of the week. That sounds like a plan! Well anyway, I just got 11 hours of sleep last night, so I finally feel functional enough to update! Ok, first things first: we have a new blogger! Yay! Go check out Luiss Blog and say hi. Next, Mystery Hunt! Yes I know it was a week ago, but Ive been tired, ok? Anyway, if you check out the Mystery Hunt Website, you can check out all of the puzzles, metapuzzles, and some data about teams involved in the hunt. One of my absolute favorites was one that I didnt even remotely work on: No Silver Lining. Ill give you all a few days to work on it, then Ill tell you the funny story behind it. Mysterious Cry, Quiet Habit was also a great puzzle. It was one of the most annoying (and therefore most rewarding) puzzles in the hunt. It took us about 15 man-hours to solve. Finally, this puzzle was the most fun: Denial. Keep in mind that this is just a sampling. I slept a lot during Mystery Hunt, so I missed a lot of puzzles. The above featured puzzles were just some of my personal favorites. In a few days Ill reveal their secrets. =) Im going to explain to you why Mystery Hunt is so much fun. Imagine this: youve got this huge group of people sitting around in a classroom. The chalkboards are covered with color-coded diagrams, zip codes, cities, reconstructed scrabble boards, mock licensce plate numbers, and about 3 million sets of scrambled letters that mean nothing to anyoneyet. There are tangles of extension cords all over the room, and every laptop has a browser open to either,,, or some crossword solver website. Every once in awhile someone shouts out, quick, name a color that starts with g! or Hey, who knows the name of that movie where or artist! The second word is artist! Write that down! Suddenly, the Mario Theme sounds throughout the room, which means that someone submitted a request to check an answer through the website and the designated cell phone with the Mario ringtone is ringing. The room falls silent and some anxious person whos been working on the same puz zle for the last 4 hours answers the phone. Hello, this is death. (The team name is Death from Above. It makes sense. Even if it is disturbing.) *pause* Yes, wed like to check the answer BATHTUB. Thats B-A-T-H-T-U-B. *pause* Yes, thank you. The person hangs up and announces to the room that they were right, and everyone cheers. And the puzzle solving continues. I have just one more comment about Mystery Hunt, and that is this: no idea is crazy. Ever. For one puzzle, a group of people had done a bunch of work, and had 3 sets of data- there were 17 rows, and each row had a word or phrase, a number, and a letter. They had no idea what to do with all of this, and after hours of feeling like they were banging their heads against a wall, they finally gave up. I came along and had nothing to do, so I tried to find a rule that would allow me to rearrange the rows in a way that would give more information. I tried about 15 different ideas, and none of them worked. (It turned out we still needed more information anyway.) Someone came over and asked how I was arranging them. Oh, well I was just alphabetizing the words by their last letter. This well-meaning person, suddenly concerned for my mental health, physically dragged me away from the blackboard and gave me something else to do. Hours later, someone else found some more information and managed t o solve the puzzle. The next day, we went to the wrap-up, where the hunt organizers explained how some of the puzzles worked. They claimed that the solution to one of the metas was given by reading the first letter in each word of the meta. Someone in the audience shouted out, how do you arrange them so that it works? And do you know what they said? Oh, you alphabetize the words by their last letter. Thank you and good night. In other news, my weekend has been amazing. I have basically done nothing, and thoroughly enjoyed it. Although last night, Becky and Sam and Sarah and I all went grocery shopping together. Becky and I bought, among other things, 3.5 pounds of chicken (!!), and made paella. It was awesome. Im learning how to cook. And the food came out really good, too. Anyway, today is the Mafia Potluck with New House 4. I will be making nachos. It promises to be a fun time. Coming soon- an entry with all of the two dozen photos Ive taken for this blog but havent yet gotten around to posting. Promise!

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Bartolome de Las Casas Book Review - 973 Words

An Account much abbreviated of the destruction of the Indies, Indianapolis, IN, Hackett Publishing Company INC., 2003 Bartolme De Las Casas is an interesting character. His passion for people who at the time were seen as a sub species of humans (if even human at all) is remarkable. De Las Casas came from a modest family and was well educated. He was brought into the world of the America s through his father Pedro De Las Casas who was an encomiendo himself. His travels through the New World prior to 1510 when he became an ordained priest shaped his crusade to defend the Natives. There are many clues in this book which point to the exaggeration of its content. For instance at one point De Las Casas goes as far as to say that 12 million†¦show more content†¦De Las Casas did affect King Charles the 5th and in 1542 after reading Brevisima Relacion he quickly created the New Laws which conveniently put an end to some of the rights of the encomienda which the monarch felt gave too much power to Spanish land owners in the Americas. De Las Casas gave the King the perfect excuse to take power back from the encomiendos justifying it with Christianity which the Spanish monarchs were responsible to uphold. The political system of the time and its relation to the Catholic Church makes every situation involving members of the clergy to have political repercussions. The royals used De Las Casas to take power back for them selves; De Las Casas used his political leverage and the crowns responsibility to protect the values of Christianity to aid his cause. While it is clear what the monarchs gain from De Las Casas was, De Las Casas passion to help the Indians seems purely genuine to me. Although at times reading the book I became frustrated and bored (even while I read such brutal details and events) I understand the need for the exaggerations and over done dramatics. Even though it is not 100% true that De Las Casas witnessed all the horrible events that he described it is true that they did occur. The means justifies the end in this case and the need for attention at this time to the terrible treatment of the Natives was worth the repetitive and at timesShow MoreRelatedBartolome De Las Casas Book Review Essay examples979 Words   |  4 PagesBartolme De Las Casas is an interesting character. His passion for people who at the time were seen as a sub species of humans (if even human at all) is remarkable. De Las Casas came from a modest family and was well educated. 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Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Graduation Speech At Utah Valley University - 873 Words

Ever since I could remember my parents told me that college was key to being successful in life, if you didn t attend a good college your life was most likely not going to be a very happy one. This message stay throughout my life , education was of great importance and college was the key factor of where you ended up in life. High school counselors, teachers, parents, and mentors all emphasized that the better the college you attend the more opportunities you ll have. Being a high school senior and having to think seriously about the future now, I applied for many schools and landed at Utah Valley University, a great feeder school for Brigham Young University. I attended Utah Valley University for 1 semester and I really enjoyed many aspects of going to a university but decided to go back home to orange county and attend a community college instead, Coastline Community College. I have so far been enrolled at coastline for about a month and can see the likenesses and the differences b etween the university life and the community college life. I can see no college is alike, and that doesn t mean one college is better than another. It took transferring to a community college to see that not even a university is better than a community college. Utah Valley University and Coastline Community College, weren t the same type of school but actually had quite a bit of similarities. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Human Resource Armor Free Essays

Introduction Edelman and Suchman points out that labor lawsuit judgment identify how a legal environment—which embodies legal, social and cultural norms—can diffuse liabilities brought upon by management instances (Biggert, 1997).   The constitution has provided several laws that state the rights of employees in any form of organization.   Private or government-owned, all companies must adhere to these laws and see to it that these rights are well exercised by any member of staff. We will write a custom essay sample on Human Resource Armor or any similar topic only for you Order Now   Ã‚   From the top executive down to the mechanical worker, every individual are entitled to these rights inasmuch as they are expected to follow the laws that comes along with their job description.   In such way, the law provides immunity both to the employer and employee in collaboration with creating a harmonious environment within the agency. Hence, apart from these laws stated in the constitution, there are also regulations crafted by the organization which is agreed upon by the body as a whole and neither one shall defeat the purpose of such.   In the light, labor management suggests the importance of social justice and thereby encompasses disparity (Mezias, 2002). Interpretation of labor A legal regulation in contracts divulged to in the context of labor is a central part in any organization or firm’s policy configuration.    The scope and focal purpose of a legal regulation may or may not be detrimental to labor—either that of mass disruption approach or perspective with party control.   Such theories are analyzed in both anti-labor and pro-labor laws, thus the results came up favorable with the latter given that the policies were found inconclusive with the small sample sizes of the studies conducted.   Conceivably, the said laws are weighed and strategically investigated in consideration with several variables—economic, class, society—to come up with more feasible outputs which will later be used beneficial to the concern of the general masses when it comes to the interpretation of labor (Biggert, 1997). Analysis on unemployment laws As mentioned earlier, unemployment laws hold only very few scrutiny since that there has only been a number of studies that have been conducted in aide of bringing up the best forms of ruling that will inhibit the importance of such in a state.   More specifically, the challenges that are bound in unemployment laws are rarely deliberated by administrations for the reason that most hardships in managerial activities appear during the verge of employment compared to that on pre-employment matters. Basically, the laws that appear to be most challenging are those that extend or restrict the rights of labor in and around the workplace and those regulations that abide on the level of contract involved (Mezias, 2002). Unemployment compensation is apparently the main issue in laborers that fall inside the aforementioned bracket.   In essence, it relates to wages and hours standards, union rights, collective bargaining, health and safety, prevailing wages and discrimination. All these are perceivably retained to render security to these individuals and in the long run help them in building up a new foundation of their new course in life. Challenges in labor management among the unemployed Organizational behavior emphasizes the importance of labor-ness and the principal beneficiaries of the concerned laborer.   In stereotypical analysis on unemployment laws over the past few decades, it has been sought that the so-called â€Å"basic† benefits are already considered as a part of every contract and that the other unprecedented features that other firms offer—gradually dependent to the contract—are beyond the scope of the unemployment laws which are designed by the government alone. The dilemma then flows on the application of these â€Å"extended benefits†Ã¢â‚¬â€such as the social welfare security, union passages, beneficiaries, pensions and other related pro-labor regulations provided by the management concerned.   But that does not just end there, the possibility of shifts in party or breach in contracts also come at hand. Trends that mark importance of â€Å"democracy† are also a part of this domain of â€Å"challengers,† needless to say that the result of these coalitions though union groups are still considered as polity members, however, the contract may be considered violated and therefore nullify the benefits (Mezias, 2002). Court decisions on labor-related cases Legal proceedings concerning labor lawsuit judgments are referenced in contemporary hearings.   In the case of foreign direct investments, foreign subsidiaries find face disadvantages and unparalleled liabilities among domestic firms due to information asymmetries and transaction costs.   The Equal Pay Act of 1963 and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 are examples of laws that build up the foundation of these rights of laborers and somehow seem to exert strong influence on employee to employer relations (Mezias, 2002). Conclusions and further remarks Human resource practices help organizations in achieving social justice among its participating parties and build a sturdy foundation of law-abiding citizens.   It helps in eradicating the rise of ambiguous laws and hones organizations to create a normative environment that will work in a systematic order and balance the biases of humanistic egoisms. References Biggert, R. (1997). Why Labor Wins, Why Labor Loses: A Test of Two Theories. The Sociological Quarterly, 38(1). Mezias, J. M. (2002). Identifying Liabilities of Foreignness and Strategies to Minimize Their Effects: The Case of Labor Lawsuit Judgments in the United States. Strategic Management Journal, 23(3). How to cite Human Resource Armor, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Expert Notes Gene Correction for Methods & Protocols â€Myassignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about the Gene Correction for Methods and Protocols. Answer: Introduction: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a decently discovered class of small non-coding RNAs of length around 22-25 nucleotides, which participate in gene regulation at a post-transcriptional level. Lin-4 in C. elegans was the first miRNA identified, which plays significant role in the temporal control of post-embryonic development in the organism (He et al. 2005). Studies have revealed that apart from temporal control of developmental stages, miRNAs have widespread functions in various aspects of development and physiology. They usually bind to 3 Untranslated Region in mRNAs that are found to be hugely conserved over a wide range of protein-coding genes. The target recognition of miRNAs span a region of 2-7 of the nucleotide sequence, located at the 5 end (Griffiths-Jones et al. 2006). Its crucial functions demand the biogenesis of the RNAs to be strictly regulated at several levels and any dysfunction of its regulation is often associated with cancers and various neurodegenerative disorders. MiRNA genes are widespread and abundant in the genomes of various organisms and as many as 2,588 miRNA genes are found in human. Precursor miRNAs are produced by RNA polymerase II which are then processed by RNase III enzymes DORSHA and DICER in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the cell respectively. Various non-canonical pathways are being discovered for miRNA biogenesis. The significant role played by the miRNA in maintain the normal physiology and development of an organism has enabled scientists to use it as a diagnostic as prognostic biomarker for various cancers, heart diseases and neurological disorders. It has been widely established that miRNA act as inhibitors of protein synthesis either by translational repression or by mRNA degradation. In addition to mRNA silencing Eiring et al. in 2010 found that miRNAs can interfere with functions of regulatory proteins to affect gene transcription. Further Lytle et al. (2007) elucidated that miRNA can bind to sites on the target miRNA other th an 3 UTR such as 5 UTR binding sites. It has been stated that miRNA can also act as translation activator at certain extreme condition in the cell (Vasudevan, Tong and Steitz 2007). Deregulation in miRNA biogenesis and consequently in the levels of miRNA are related to the incidence of various diseases that include cancers, autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. The role of miRNA was discovered in concern to chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. The regions where miR-15 and miR-16 genes are located were found to be deleted in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, indicating its potential role as a tumour suppressor (Calin et al. 2002). Other studies over the years have established that miRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumour suppressors in pathways that have been related to cancer prognosis. Deregulation of miRNAs can be caused by several mechanisms that influence the transcription factors controlling the biogenesis of miRNAs in a target specific manner. The mechanisms may include mutation, deletion or amplification of miRNA genes or dysregulation of transcription factors. Several lines of studies have indicated that miRNA plays a dual role in cancer metastases. It has been found to up regulate cell migration and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. On the contrary other studies show that restored levels of certain miRNA in breast cancer can suppress metasta sis by overall tumour growth and decreased time of relapse. Similarly studies have shown down regulated levels of miRNA in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Autoimmune diseases like the most prevalent and chronic Psoriasis, Rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematous have been associated with dysregulation of various miRNAs. The functions of miRNA in neuronal development are well-established to this date. MiRNA has been used as a biomarker for several motor and neurocognitive diseases like Alzheimers, Huntingtons and Parkinsons diseases. MiRNA is also related to the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders like Schizophrenia, autism, Fragile X syndrome, depression and addiction. Hence, the regulatory roles of miRNA in pathogenesis and diagnosis of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders have paved the way for therapeutic intervention in miRNA specific manner and extensive researches are being undertaken to explore the use of miRNA as a therapeutic tool. The initial barrier to utilize miRNA as a therapeutic toll is to identify the specific gene coding for miRNAs and its tiny regulators. The conserved nature of its sequences has been exploited for the purpose of gene identification for miRNAs. Sequence conservation between various organisms has led to the miRNA genes have been identified by computational methods. The detection of the miRNA targets in mRNA are another barrier for in vitro experimental purposes, although computational methods have evolved and are still developing to overcome this hurdle in large-scale experiments. The fact that levels of many miRNA are deregulated in different disease has encouraged scientists to explore the therapeutic applications of miRNA. The basic hurdle for such a feat is the delivery of miRNA to targeted regions. It has been found that naked miRNAs are degraded in vivo and hence delivery systems are required to develop therapeutic applications and restore normal levels of the molecule in diseased conditions (van Rooij, Purcell and Levin 2012). In case of neurodegenerative disease and psychiatric disorders the regions affected are primarily various parts of the brain. Currently two strategies, agonistic and antagonistic approaches are employed to modify abnormal levels of miRNA in the body. In agonistic approach the decreased miRNA levels are restored by miRNA mimics and in antagonistic approach overexpressed miRNAs are suppressed by anti-miR. As these naked molecules are prone to enzyme degradation in the body, efficient and stable delivery systems need to be developed. Several strategies have been discovered to overcome this hurdle. Initially chemical modification of miRNA molecules such a replacing the phosphodiester bonds with other functional groups were proposed, however, such modifications led to production of toxic metabolic by-products and reduced miRNA activity (Rupaimoole et al. 2011). In this regard viral vector systems are a relatively older strategy. Many viruses have been studied for this purpose such as recombinant adeno-associated virus, retrovirus and lentivirus. The selection criteria depend on various factors like specific tropoism, efficient transgene expression and effectively crossing the blood-brain-barrier (Wen 2016). The primary drawback of using a viral vector as a delivery system is the immunogenicity of the virus and oncogenic transformation by viruses. Further, production of high-quality and high-quantity viral vectors is another barrier to the pharmaceutical and commercial companies, leading to limited application of vi ral vectors. On the contrary non-viral vectors have certain advantages like lack of immunogenicity, high stability and easy modification. Recent researches have explored various non-viral vector systems for miRNA therapeutic purposes. Some of them include lipid-based carriers, gold nanoparticles, cationic polymer based carriers, carbon based carriers and magnetic nanoparticles. Gaining knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of these particles and the need to produce disease specific carrier systems for long term gene expression or knockdown requires a lot of future research in this domain. Further, ethical issues regarding clinical targets is another overwhelming barrier for miRNA therapeutic applications. Sickle cell disease is a group of inherited red blood cell disorders that affects the shape of the bloods cells reducing availability of functional blood cells and consequently the oxygen carrying capacity of blood. The shape of normal red blood cells is somewhat round facilitating easy passage through small blood vessels. It is an autosomal recessive disorder affecting chromosome 11. Normal haemoglobin is classified into groups A, A2 and F. In sickle cell disease an abnormal chain results in the formation of haemoglobin S in which the chain contains valine instead of glutamic acid (Bender and Seibel 2014). The abnormal haemoglobin S polymerizes resulting in deformed red blood cell shape. Retardation of blood flow, mechanical vaso-occlution, and lack of oxygen tension enhances the rate of polymerization of Hb S (Dubay, Krebs and Thresh 2015). Sickle cell disease is an example of point mutation of the - chain gene of haemoglobin. The single amino acid difference (glutamic acid to va line) results in collapse of the red blood cells, making the body to produce more red blood cells to compensate for the loss. This puts an overwhelming burden on several other organs of the body casing various clinical symptoms. Typical symptoms of the disease include pain, acute chest syndrome, pulmonary hypertension, liver disease, cardiovascular abnormalities and neurological disorders. The disease is predominant in African Americans and the population of middle-east. The disease can be prevented by genetic examination of couples prior to conceiving. The treatment of the disease includes primarily pain management and other pharmacological interventions and in extreme cases surgery and organ transplantations. The single point mutation found in sickle cell disease can be corrected by site specific double-strand breaks produced by the CRISPR/Cas 9 system (Chu et al. 2015). To have control over the particular sequence that has undergone a double stranded break i.e. the allele with a point mutation in the chain of haemoglobin, we can use plasmid-based systems that can recognize and but DNA at specific sites. These plasmids can be used to cut the allele in chromosome 11 that has been mutated. A high degree of homology is required to repair the damaged DNA and restore the normal form of the allele so that normal chains of Hb are produced. Three sgRNAs were constructed that can bind to the target site in the DNA. After binding, Cas9/sg RNAs will produce a double stranded break in the DNA which then will be repaired by homology directed repair (HDR) which will result in inserting the correct nucleotide into the allele and restoring the mutation. Linearized plasmids are required for transfection . However, recent studies conclude those single stranded donor oligonucleotides (ssODNs) are more efficient for about 50bp mutations or single point mutations (Alam et al. 2014). The templates for ssODNs can be 100-200 bps in length with a Cas9 break point at the centre of the template. Non-homologous end joining pathways can also be used to repair a double strand break. Studies report than non-homologous end joining pathways are more efficient in inserting plasmid genome into the genome of target (Davis and Chen 2013). The pathway recruits a wide range of proteins that perform synapsis, preparation and ligation of the cut DNAs. Similar to homology directed repair mechanism CRISPR/Cas9 system can be utilized to make cuts at the desired site in the chromosome. After the cuts the broken ends can be recognised by Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer. Recruitment of kinase, ligase and other factors hold the DNA together to form a paired complex which is then ligated to repair the break (Btermier, Bertrand and Lopez 2014). Hence it can be used to insert and exogenous nucleotide by Cas9 mediated break. The plasmids that need to be designed for this purpose will contain no homologous sequence with our target gene. The donor will contain a promoter less ires-eGFP and a single sgRNA target site at 5 end of the ires-eGFP (single-cut). Any possibility of frameshift mutation due to non-homologous end joining repair was avoided by using the ires element. Non homologous end joining can be obtained by single cut vectors that cleave the DNA at a single site on the 5 end or by double cut that cleave the DNA at two different sites and then promote repair simultaneously. In general non homologous end joining repair carries a two-third chance of producing a frame shift mutation mediated by indel error. IF double cut plasmids are used to repair the gene of our interest the efficiency of knock in will have a higher probability to be reduced. Hence, for efficient correction of the mutation found in sickle cell disease single cut plasmids should be used preferably. References Alam, M.R., Thazhathveetil, A.K., Li, H. and Seidman, M.M., 2014. Preparation and Application of Triple Helix Forming Oligonucleotides and Single Strand Oligonucleotide Donors for Gene Correction.Gene Correction: Methods and Protocols, pp.103-113. Bender, M.A. and Seibel, G.D., 2014. Sickle cell disease. Btermier, M., Bertrand, P. and Lopez, B.S., 2014. Is non-homologous end-joining really an inherently error-prone process?.PLoS Genet,10(1), p.e1004086 Branzei, D. and Foiani, M., 2008. Regulation of DNA repair throughout the cell cycle.Nature reviews Molecular cell biology,9(4), pp.297-308. Calin, G.A., Dumitru, C.D., Shimizu, M., Bichi, R., Zupo, S., Noch, E., Aldler, H., Rattan, S., Keating, M., Rai, K. and Rassenti, L., 2002. Frequent deletions and down-regulation of micro-RNA genes miR15 and miR16 at 13q14 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,99(24), pp.15524-15529. Chu, V.T., Weber, T., Wefers, B., Wurst, W., Sander, S., Rajewsky, K. and Khn, R., 2015. Increasing the efficiency of homology-directed repair for CRISPR-Cas9-induced precise gene editing in mammalian cells.Nature biotechnology,33(5), pp.543-548 Davis, A.J. and Chen, D.J., 2013. DNA double strand break repair via non-homologous end-joining.Translational cancer research,2(3), p.130 Dubay, J., Krebs, D. and Thresh, L., 2015. Sickle Cell Anemia. Eiring, A.M., Harb, J.G., Neviani, P., Garton, C., Oaks, J.J., Spizzo, R., Liu, S., Schwind, S., Santhanam, R., Hickey, C.J. and Becker, H., 2010. miR-328 functions as an RNA decoy to modulate hnRNP E2 regulation of mRNA translation in leukemic blasts.Cell,140(5), pp.652-665. Griffiths-Jones, S., Grocock, R.J., Van Dongen, S., Bateman, A. and Enright, A.J., 2006. miRBase: microRNA sequences, targets and gene nomenclature.Nucleic acids research,34(suppl 1), pp.D140-D144. He, L., Thomson, J.M., Hemann, M.T., Hernando-Monge, E., Mu, D., Goodson, S., Powers, S., Cordon-Cardo, C., Lowe, S.W., Hannon, G.J. and Hammond, S.M., 2005. A microRNA polycistron as a potential human oncogene.Nature,435(7043), pp.828-833. Hsu, P.D., Lander, E.S. and Zhang, F., 2014. Development and applications of CRISPR-Cas9 for genome engineering.Cell,157(6), pp.1262-1278. Lytle, J.R., Yario, T.A. and Steitz, J.A., 2007. Target mRNAs are repressed as efficiently by microRNA-binding sites in the 5 UTR as in the 3 UTR.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,104(23), pp.9667-9672. Nicoloso, M.S., Spizzo, R., Shimizu, M., Rossi, S. and Calin, G.A., 2009. MicroRNAsthe micro steering wheel of tumour metastases.Nature Reviews Cancer,9(4), pp.293-302. Rupaimoole, R., Han, H.D., Lopez-Berestein, G. and Sood, A.K., 2011. MicroRNA therapeutics: principles, expectations, and challenges.Chinese journal of cancer,30(6), p.368. van Rooij, E., Purcell, A.L. and Levin, A.A., 2012. Developing microRNA therapeutics.Circulation research,110(3), pp.496-507. Vasudevan, S., Tong, Y. and Steitz, J.A., 2007. Switching from repression to activation: microRNAs can up-regulate translation.Science,318(5858), pp.1931-1934. Wen, M.M., 2016. Getting miRNA Therapeutics into the Target Cells for Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Mini-Review.Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience,9, p.129. (2016). What is sickle cell anaemia?. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 Dec. 2016].